- RC forms an important part of the verbal ability section. This section mainly focuses on to check the ability to understand the language and the underlying concept of the passage. The main focus should be to have a good command over the language as well as time management.
- Make sure you attempt these passage on a regular basis and with complete seriousness.
- Read the passage below and then answer the questions that follow.
- Once you are finished, click the ‘Get Results’ button below. Any items you have not completed will be marked incorrect.
Read the passage given below and solve the questions based on the passage
Emile Durkheim, the first person to be formally recognized as a sociologist and the most scientific of the pioneers, conducted a study that stands as a research model for sociologists today. His investigation of suicide was, in fact, the first sociological study to use statistics. In Suicide (1964, originally published in 1897) Durkheim documented his contention that some aspects of human behaviour- even something as allegedly invidualistic as suicide-can be explained without reference to individuals.
Like all of Durkheim’s work, suicide must be viewed in the context of his concern for social integration. Durkheim wanted to see if suicide rates within a social entity (for example, a group, organisation, or society) are related to the degree to which individuals are socially involved (integrated and regulated). Durkheim described three types of suicide: egoistic, altruistic and anomic. Egoistic suicide is promoted when individuals do not have sufficient social ties: since single (never married) adults, for example, are not heavily involved with family life, they are more likely to commit suicide than the married adults. Altruistic suicide, on the other hand, is more likely to occur when social integration is too strong. The ritual suicide of Hindu widows on their husbands’ funeral pyres is one example. Military personnel, trained to lay down their lives for their country, provide another illustration.
Durkheim’s third type of suicide-anomic suicide-increases when the social regulation of individuals is disrupted. For example, suicide rates increase during economic depression. People who suddenly find themselves without a job or without hope of finding one are more prone to kill themselves. Suicides may also increase during periods of prosperity. People may loosen their social ties by taking new jobs, moving to new communities, or finding new mates.
Using data from the government population reports of several countries (much of it from the French Government Statistical Office), Durkheim found strong support for his line of reasoning. Suicide rates were higher among single than married people, among military personnel than civilians, among divorced than married people, and among people involved in nationwide economic crises.
It is important to realise that Durkheim’s primary interest was not in the empirical (observable) indicators he used, such as suicide rates among military personnel, married people, and so forth. Rather, Durkheim used the following indicators to support several of his contentions. (a) Social behaviour can be explained by social rather than psychological factors. (b) Suicide is affected by the degree of integration and regulation within social entities; and (c) Since society can be studied scientifically, sociology is worthy of recognition in the academic world.
Durkheim was successful on all three counts.
RC (Level-2): Passage-3
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to document that suicide can be explained without reference to the individual.
to provide an explanation of the variation in the rate of suicide across societies.
to categorize various types of suicide.
to document that social behavior can be explained by social rather than psychological factors.
This shows that Durkheim's main purpose was to document that suicide can be explained without reference to the individual. Hence, option A is the right answer choice.
Option D might confuse you here a little but then you need to remember that option D is picked from another context in the passage. It is one of contentions that Durkheim proves with respect to the subject of sociology. The given question here pertains to suicide and therefore, we need select option A in the given case.
absence of social ties.
disruption of social regulation.
nature of social integration
all of the above.
none of the above
This is a direct question and answer can be directly found from the lines above. The correct answer is option (C).
none of the above
a manifestation of strong social integration
an example of brutality against women
an example of anomic suicide
an example of egoistic suicide
The lines above explain why option A is the correct answer.
both A and C
military personal than among civilians.
single people than among married people.
divorcees than among married people.
people involved in nation-wide economic crisis.
social behavior is explicable through social factors.
suicide is contingent upon the degree of regulation and interaction.
recognizing sociology is to acknowledge that society is susceptible to scientific investigation.
All of the above.
Rather, Durkheim used the following indicators to support several of his contentions.
(a) Social behaviour can be explained by social rather than psychological factors.
(b) Suicide is affected by the degree of integration and regulation within social entities; and (c) Since society can be studied scientifically, sociology is worthy of recognition in the academic world. Each of the three options, (A), (B) and (C), can be derived from the points above.
right on some counts not others.
vindicated on all counts
wrong but did not realise that he was right.
substantially correct but formally wrong.