• These tests are a check for your learning and are meant to serve as tools for assessment.
  • The test is designed to check your current understanding of the language and whether you are able to logically infer the relationships between different parts of the paragraph.
  • Directions for individual questions: The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages. For some questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer; that is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the question.

Critical Reasoning: Test-7

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Question 1
'Religions, like camel caravans, seem to avoid mountain passes. Buddhism spread quickly south from Buddha's birth-place in southern Nepal across the flat Gangetic plain to Sri Lanka. But it took a millennium to reach China. The religious belt stretched eventually to Mongolia and Japan, but in Afghanistan Buddhism filled only a narrow belt that left pagans among the valleys to the east and west in Kailash and Ghor'. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the conclusion to the above argument?
A
Christianity took several centuries to cross the Atlantic Ocean to America.
B
The Hindukush mountains made no difference to the speed with which Islam spread.
C
Buddhism is strongest in mountainous regions.
D
Jainism is less popular in cold climates.
Question 1 Explanation: 
There are two aspects that you need to keep in mind while answering this question: a. the argument focuses on the speed with which a religion spreads across mountains and how mountains can act as an impediment in this progress b. the final popularity of the religion in a place is not in question, rather the speed with which it becomes popular is being talked about here. This makes option B the clear answer and discounts option C. The reason for this is that if option B is correct, then the argument is weakened substantially and its very existence comes into question.
Question 2
'Friendship was indeed a value for the villagers, more for men than for women. Two good friends were said to be 'like brothers' (literally, 'like elder brother-younger brother', annatammandirahage). I heard this expression several times and I could not help recalling the statement of an elderly English colleague who had told me that he and his brother were very close and had written to each other every week. He had added, 'We are very good friends.' That is, friendship connoted intimacy in England while in Rampura (as in rural India everywhere), brotherhood conveyed intimacy'. Which of the following best summarises the conclusion of the argument of this paragraph?
A
Friendship has greater value for men than for women.
B
People in England have different attitudes to brotherhood and friendship than people in rural India.
C
Brotherhood has greater value in rural India than in England.
D
Friendship has greater value in England than in India.
Question 2 Explanation: 
The whole point of the paragraph is to illustrate the difference in values between rural India and England. Which is better amongst these two is not the question but the fact that they are different is something that the author is driving at.
Question 3
'Friendship was indeed a value for the villagers, more for men than for women. Two good friends were said to be 'like brothers' (literally, 'like elder brother-younger brother', annatammandirahage). I heard this expression several times and I could not help recalling the statement of an elderly English colleague who had told me that he and his brother were very close and had written to each other every week. He had added, 'We are very good friends.' That is, friendship connoted intimacy in England while in Rampura (as in rural India everywhere), brotherhood conveyed intimacy'. Which of the following, if true, would directly contradict the conclusion of the above argument?
A
People are less likely to have large families in England.
B
People in England are no longer close to their family members.
C
People in England do not think that friendship connotes intimacy.
D
People in rural India think that sisters cannot be intimate.
Question 3 Explanation: 
The direct contradiction of the conclusion in the paragraph is option C. It merely states the opposite of what is given in the paragraph.
Question 4
Inflation can only be fundamentally caused by two factors – supply side factors and demand side factors. These factors are either reductions in the supply of goods and services or increases in demand due to either the increased availability of money or the reallocation of demand. Unless other compensating changes also occur, inflation is bound to result if either of these occurs. In economics prior to the introduction of banks (a pre–banking economy) the quantity of money available, and hence, the level of demand, was equivalent to the quantity of gold available. If the statements above are true, then it is also true that in a pre–banking economy,
A
If other factors in the economy are unchanged, increasing the quantity of gold available would lead to inflation.
B
any inflation would be the result of reductions in the supply of goods and services.
C
if there is a reduction in the quantity of gold available, then, other things being equal, inflation would result.
D
Whatever changes in demand occur, there would be compensating changes in the supply of goods and services.
Question 4 Explanation: 
Since the level of demand is equivalent of the quantity of gold available, an increase in gold available would mean increased demand and thus lead to higher inflation.
Question 5
'A language is most easily learnt when it is in tune with the social context. To teach an Indian child in English at the primary stage ... strengthens distinctions of class and status and warps the mind. Failure to resort to regional languages in literacy campaigns also hampers their success'. Which of the following claims, if true, would weaken the argument in the passage above?
A
Literacy campaigns are more successful when conducted in English.
B
Learning English at an early age has been found to weaken class distinctions.
C
Children who learn English at the primary-school stage have been found to show greater intellectual ability than those who learn English only at the secondary level.
D
All of the above.
Question 5 Explanation: 
Each of the first three options in some way or the other counters the assertion made in the passage and makes it look weak. All attack the fundamental points made by the author, and hence option D is the correct choice.
Question 6
'The tribes should develop their own culture and make their contribution to the cultural richness of the country. It is unnecessary to cause them to change their customs, habits or diversions so far as to make themselves indistinguishable from other classes. To do so would be to rob rural and pastoral life of its colour and stimulating diversity'. Which of the following conclusions is not implied by the passage above?
A
It is good for India's tribal people to develop their culture.
B
Tribal customs should not be allowed to change in any respect.
C
Forcing tribal people to change their customs reduces the diversity of rural life.
D
Tribal culture is part of the cultural richness of India.
Question 6 Explanation: 
The author of the passage makes a very subtle argument. He talks about how tribes should be allowed to retain their culture, and in case if they wish to develop it (which is synonymous with change), they should do so in a way which is congruent with their own cultures. This makes option B the correct answer as it says that the tribes should not be allowed to change, whereas the author talks of how they should be allowed to change the way they want to.
Question 7
'The tribes should develop their own culture and make their contribution to the cultural richness of the country. It is unnecessary to cause them to change their customs, habits or diversions so far as to make themselves indistinguishable from other classes. To do so would be to rob rural and pastoral life of its colour and stimulating diversity'. Which of the following claims runs directly counter to the spirit of the passage above?
A
Tribal people should be able to decide what elements of the modern world to adopt.
B
The government should make modern science and medicine available to tribal people.
C
Tribal people should not be subjected to any coercion to conform to non-tribal cultural norms as long as they do not violate the law.
D
The tribals should assimilate as far as possible into non-tribal culture as a condition of full citizenship.
Question 7 Explanation: 
As an extension of the above question, the answer is very easy to identify. Clearly, option D runs contrary to the passage as it talks about changing the tribes and how they should change themselves as much as possible (clearly the author implies the opposite).
Question 8
'The tribes should develop their own culture and make their contribution to the cultural richness of the country. It is unnecessary to cause them to change their customs, habits or diversions so far as to make themselves indistinguishable from other classes. To do so would be to rob rural and pastoral life of its colour and stimulating diversity'. Which of the following is not an assumption required by the above argument?
A
Colour and diversity are desirable things.
B
Tribal people are capable of contributing to India's cultural diversity.
C
Changing tribal customs is a necessary condition of making modern medicine available to tribal people.
D
Rural life is presently full of colour and diversity.
Question 8 Explanation: 
Clearly option C bears no relation to the paragraph and introduces an extraneous piece of information, which is totally baseless and incorrect.
Question 9
The cost of housing in many urban parts of India has become so excessive that many young couples, with above–average salaries, can only afford small apartments. EMI and rent commitments are so huge that they cannot consider the possibility of starting a family since a new baby would probably mean either the mother or father giving up a well–paid position – something they can ill afford. The lack of or great cost of child care facilities further precludes the return of both parents to work. Which of the following adjustments could practically be made to the situation described above which would allow young couples to improve their housing prospects?
A
Encourage couples to have one child only
B
Encourage couples to remain childless
C
Encourage young couples to move to cheaper areas for living
D
None of these is likely to have an impact on the current situation
Question 9 Explanation: 
Option A is not logical as the problem is not associated with the number of children but having any children in the first place. Option B is also not logical as remaining childless forever is not viable. Option C can be ruled out as cheaper areas to live will not be in the urban or developed areas of the city but would be on the outskirts with lack of facilities. Therefore we can conclude that none of the situations is likely to have an impact on the current situation.
Question 10
In a famous experiment at the IISC campus, when a cat smelled milk, it salivated. In the experiment, a bell was rung whenever food was placed near the cat. After a number of trials, only the bell was rung, whereupon the cat would salivate even though no food was present. Such behaviour has been observed in other animals such as dogs, monkeys, etc. and is a vital input for training domesticated animals. Which of the following conclusions may be drawn from the above experiment?
A
The ringing of a bell was associated with food in the mind of the cat.
B
Cats and other animals can be easily tricked.
C
A conclusion cannot be reached on the basis of one experiment.
D
Two stimuli are stronger than one.
Question 10 Explanation: 
The only logical conclusion that can be drawn from the above statement is that the ringing of the bell was associated with food in the mind of the cat. Sentence D is logically incoherent as there is only one stimulus i.e. the ringing of the bell.
Question 11
Chewing tobacco has many benefits. However, the primary benefits occur in the area of mental health. The habit originates in a search for contentment. The life expectancy of our people has increased greatly in recent years; it is possible that the relaxation and contentment and enjoyment produced by tobacco chewing has lengthened many lives. Hence, chewing tobacco is beneficial. Which of the following, if true, would weaken the above conclusion?
A
The evidence cited in the statement covers only one example of the effects of tobacco chewing.
B
The government earns millions of rupees from the sales of chewing tobacco.
C
There is as yet no statistical evidence to prove a link between chewing and longevity.
D
None of these
Question 11 Explanation: 
The argument presented here can only be weakened by the fact that there is no decisive proof that chewing tobacco and longevity are interconnected. Contentment and enjoyment are not the only factors responsible for a long life.
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