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• These tests are a check for your learning and are meant to serve as tools for assessment.
• The test is designed to check your current understanding of the language and whether you are able to logically infer the relationships between different parts of the paragraph.
• Directions for individual questions: The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages. For some questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer; that is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the question.

## Critical Reasoning: Test-6

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 Question 1
Time and again it has been shown that students who attend schools with low faculty/student ratios get the most well-rounded education. As a result, when my children are ready to attend school, I'll be sure they attend a school with a very small student population. Which of the following, if true, identifies the greatest flaw in the reasoning above?
 A A low faculty/student ratio is the effect of a well-rounded education, not its source. B Intelligence should be considered the result of childhood environment, not advanced education. C A very small student population does not by itself, ensure a low faculty/student ratio. D Parental desires and preferences rarely determines a child's choice of a school. E Students must take advantage of the low faculty/student ratio by intentionally choosing small classes.
Question 1 Explanation:
C The question asks us to identify a flaw in the argument? What is the flaw according to you? Option 3 is the obvious flaw in the question. Does a small student population guarantee a low faculty/student ratio? No, it does not. What if the number of faculty is absurdly low in the school? In that case, the ratio would still be pretty high. So in order to have a low ration, we need a small student population and a large faculty presence. Only in this case is a low student/faculty ratio guaranteed.
 Question 2
All Indian politicians, except for Indira Gandhi, are corrupt. From which of the following can the statement above be most properly inferred?
 A Except for Indira Gandhi, if someone is a corrupt politicians, then he or she is Indian. B Indira Gandhi is the only non-Indian politicians who is corrupt. C If an Indian is corrupt, then he or she is a politican, as long as he or she is not Indira Gandhi. D Indira Gandhi is not an idealist Indian politican. E Aside from Indira Gandhi, if someone is an Indian politican, then he or she is corrupt.
Question 2 Explanation:
E This is a simple question. The question stem simply says that anyone who is an Indian politician is corrupt and the only exception is Indira Gandhi.
 Question 3
Ram earns more commission than does Sita. But since Lakshman earns more commission than does Lalita, it follows that Ram earns more commission than does Lalita. Any of the following, if introduced into the argument as an additional premise, makes the argument above logically correct EXCEPT:
 A Lakshman earns more commission than Ram B Sita earns more commission than Lalita C Sita earns more commission than Lakshman D Sita and Lakshman earn the same amount of commission E Ram and Lakshman earn the same amount of commission
Question 3 Explanation:
A We can analyze the options as follows: Option A: we cannot arrive at a definite relationship between Ram’s and Lalita’s commission. Option B: if Sita earns more than Lalita, then Ram definitively does so. Option C: If Sita earns more than Lakshman, then Ram definitely earns more than Lalita and Lakshman both. Option D: If Sita and Lakshman earn the same amount of commission, then Ram definitely earns more than Lalita. Option E: If Ram and Lakshman earn the same amount of commission, then Ram again definitely earns more than Lalita as Lakshman earns more than Lalita.
 Question 4
In 2011 a tour bus company in India lost more than half, on average, of the foreign passengers they had previously served each year. Researchers have alleged that this extreme drop resulted from a rise in price of tickets for international lines from \$100 to \$150. Which of the following, if feasible, offers the best prospects for alleviating the problem of the drop in passengers as the researchers assessed it?
 A Cooperating with other airlines to provide more international lines. B Allowing foreign passengers to pay the same as the previous international rate. C Reemphasizing the goals and mission of the airline as serving both domestic passengers and foreign passengers D Increasing the financial resources of the airline by raising the ticket price for domestic passengers E Offering superior VIP service for foreign passengers.
Question 4 Explanation:
B This is a very simple and straightforward question: what resulted in the drop in customers? An increase in rates. How to reverse the situation: reverse the rates.
 Question 5
Our advertising solutions prove to be very successful. In the past year, each of our three clients has experienced the fastest growth of sales in their history. Therefore, if your company wants to increase sales, do not hesitate to call MAD AD House, since we are the best solution in the market. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the speakers argument?
 A Most of the consultants at MAD AD house hold advertising degrees. B Even without the help of MAD AD house, the three clients of MAD AD House will achieve the same growth rate in sales. C MAD AD House is one of the three leading advertising solutions companies. D MAD AD House uses an updated approach in advertising that helps companies to improve brand visibility. E All of the three clients of MAD AD House are doing business in services sector.
Question 5 Explanation:
B How do we weaken this argument? By simply proving that the three companies has some other reason for their growth. If that is proved, then we are sure that MAD AD House is not responsible for their good fortune, and hence, we can safely say they are the not best advertising solution in the market.
 Question 6
The price of purchasing a car in India is 120 percent less than the price of purchasing a car in Pakistan. Even after transportation fees and tariff charges are added, it is still cheaper for a buyer to import a car from India to Pakistan than to buy a car in Pakistan. The statements above, if true, best support which of the following assertions?
 A Petrol prices in India are 120 percent below those in Pakistan. B Importing cars from India to Pakistan will eliminate 120 percent of the sales of cars in Pakistan. C The tariff on a car imported from India to Pakistan is less than 120 percent of the price of a car in Pakistan. D The fee for transporting a car from India to Pakistan is more than 120 percent of the price of a car in India. E It takes 120 percent less time to transport a car in India than it does in Pakistan.
Question 6 Explanation:
C This is more a mathematical question than a critical reasoning question. We know the price of a car is India is 120 less than the price of purchasing a car in Pakistan. Even after adding transportation and tariff charges, it is cheaper to buy a car in India. How is this possible? Only one way: if the duties, charges etc. are less than the difference in prices, so that difference is not covered and prices in India remain cheaper. We find this in option C. 'Instead of being concerned with what actually happens in practice ... [economics] is increasingly preoccupied with developing pseudo-mathematical formulas. These provide models of behaviour which ever quite fit what actually happens, in a way which resembles the physical sciences gone wrong: instead of equations describing reality, economics produces equations describing ideal conditions and theoretical clarity of a type which never occurs in practice'.
 Question 7
Which of the following claims is not implied in the paragraph above?
 A Economists should stop using mathematical models. B Equations describing ideal conditions should not be mistaken for equations describing reality. C Theoretical clarity should not come at the expense of accuracy. D Models of human behaviour should be true to the complexity of human nature
Question 7 Explanation:
A The two answer choices which baffle in this question are options A and D. Option A is a strongly worded option which asserts that economists should not rely on mathematics at all. On the other hand, option D mentions something that is clearly not mentioned directly in the paragraph. This leads us to believe that option D might be the answer but a closer evaluation clarifies the situation. Option D does nothing else but rephrase the last two lines of the paragraph, talking about a truer description of human nature. On the other hand, if option A was correct, then in that case there would be formulae, complex or real.
 Question 8
'Instead of being concerned with what actually happens in practice ... [economics] is increasingly preoccupied with developing pseudo-mathematical formulas. These provide models of behaviour which ever quite fit what actually happens, in a way which resembles the physical sciences gone wrong: instead of equations describing reality, economics produces equations describing ideal conditions and theoretical clarity of a type which never occurs in practice'. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument of the passage above?
 A The physical sciences are themselves reducing their reliance on mathematical formulae. B The real world in fact closely approximates ideal theoretical conditions. C We do not at present have the mathematical expertise to model the full complexity of the world economy. D Academic economists need to be more sensitive to human nature.
Question 8 Explanation:
B The clear answer to this is option B. We need to weaken the argument given in the passage. The author talks about how economists are struggling with painting the real picture in this world by over-relying on complex mathematical formulations (which are theoretical in nature). Which statement runs counter to this? Option B clearly negates this statement and provides the exact opposite.
 Question 9
'Religions, like camel caravans, seem to avoid mountain passes. Buddhism spread quickly south from Buddha's birth-place in southern Nepal across the flat Gangetic plain to Sri Lanka. But it took a millennium to reach China ... The religious belt stretched eventually to Mongolia and Japan, but in Afghanistan Buddhism filled only a narrow belt that left pagans among the valleys to the east and west in Kailash and Ghor'. Which of the following best summarises the subject of this paragraph?
 A The Afghan people were hostile to Buddhism. B Geography has considerable impact on the spread of religions. C Buddhism does not flourish in mountainous regions. D Religion has a considerable impact on geography.
Question 9 Explanation:
B The main assertion made by author of the passage is how geography comes in the way of spreading religions. This makes option 2 the easy to identify answer for this question.
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