• These tests are a check for your learning and are meant to serve as tools for assessment.
  • The test is designed to check your current understanding of the language and whether you are able to logically infer the relationships between different parts of the paragraph.
  • Directions for individual questions: The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages. For some questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer; that is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the question.

Critical Reasoning: Test-5

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Question 1
From Cochin to Shimla, the new culture vultures are tearing down acres of India's architectural Treasures. Ancestral owners are often fobbed off with a few hundred rupees for an exquisitely carved door or window, which fetches fifty times that much from foreign dealers, and yet more from the drawing room sophisticates of Europe and the US. The reason for such shameless rape of the Indian architectural wealth can perhaps, not wrongly, be attributed to the unfortunate blend of activist disunity and the local indifference. It can be inferred from the above passage that
A
the environment created by the meeting between activist disunity and local indifference is ideal for antique dealers to strive in India.
B
only Indians are not proud of their cultural heritage and are hungry for the foreign currency that is easily available in return of artifacts.
C
most Indian families have heirlooms which can be sold at high prices to Europeans and Americans.
D
India provides a rich market for unscrupulous antique dealers.
Question 1 Explanation: 
a The paragraph states that the ‘shameless rape of the Indian architectural wealth can perhaps, not wrongly, be attributed to the unfortunate blend of activist disunity and the local indifference.’ The clear inference from this statement is represented by option A. Option B may not true, as Indians might not be only ones so. Options C and D are stated in the passage.
Question 2
Deepa Mehta’s Fire is under fire from the country's self-appointed moral police. Their contention is that the film is a violation of the Indian cultural mores and cannot be allowed to influence the Indian psyche. According to them, such films ruin the moral fabric of the nation, which must be protected and defended against such intrusions at all cost, even at the cost of cultural dictatorship. Based on the information in the above passage, it can be inferred that
A
the assumption underlying the moral police's critique of Fire is that the Indian audience is vulnerable to all types of influence.
B
the assumption underlying the moral police's critique of Fire is that the Indian audience is impressionable and must be protected against 'immoral' influences.
C
the moral police thinks it has the sole authority to pass judgement on films screened in India.
D
None of these
Question 2 Explanation: 
B The moral police feel that Fire would influence the Indian psyche and ruin the moral fabric of the nation, which it should not be allowed to do. Option A is not true, as Indian audiences may be discriminating. Option C is not an inference, it is true to a certain extent.
Question 3
The dominant modern belief is that the soundest foundation of peace would be universal prosperity. One may look in vain for historical evidence that the rich have regularly been more peaceful than the poor, but then it can be argued that they have never felt secure against the poor; that their aggressiveness stemmed from fear; and that the situation would be quite different if everybody were rich. It can be inferred from the above passage that
A
a lot of aggression in the world stems from the desire of the haves to defend themselves against the have-nots.
B
universal prosperity as a foolproof measure of peace can no longer be accepted.
C
Both (1) and (2)
D
Neither (3) nor (4)
Question 3 Explanation: 
A The passage states that ‘then it can be argued that they have never felt secure against the poor; that their aggressiveness stemmed from fear’. The line basically means that the rich have never felt safe against the poor and their aggression stems from this fear. Option B cannot the answer as it refutes the conclusion in the argument
Question 4
The effect produced on the mind by travelling depends entirely on the mind of the traveller and on the way in which he conducts himself. The chief idea of one very common type of traveller is to see as many objects of interest as he possibly can. If he can only after his return home say that he has seen such and such temple, castle, picture gallery, or museum, he is perfectly satisfied. Far different is the effect of travels upon those who leave their country with a mind prepared by culture to feel intelligent admiration for all the beauties of nature and art to be found in foreign lands. When they visit a new place, instead of hurrying from temple to museum to picture gallery, they allow the spirit of the place to sink into their minds, and only visit such monuments as the time they have at their disposal allows them to contemplate without irreverent haste. It can be inferred from the above passage that
A
the writer prefers the second type of traveller.
B
the first type of traveller is the lay traveller who does not understand the worth of any place he travels to.
C
the objective of the second type of traveller is not to see much, but to see well.
D
All of these
Question 4 Explanation: 
C The passage states that the second kind of traveller ‘allows the spirit of the place to sink into their minds, and only visit such monuments as the time they have at their disposal allows them to contemplate without irreverent haste.’ The preference of this kind of traveller is not to focus on things, but on how well he absorbs the culture of one place. Option A is rejected as we do not know the author’s preference and option B again makes the mistake of giving a caustic opinion.
Question 5
It is often contended that consuming alcohol is not as harmful to society as smoking is. This is, because while consumption of alcohol harms only the health of drinker, smoking pollutes the air and hence, causes harmful diseases to others. Which of the following, if true, weakens the above argument?
A
It is generally found that those who drink are also given to smoking
B
A majority of road accidents which result in fatalities, the world over, are reported to happen due to drunken driving.
C
Some persons who regularly smoke are found to live for several years
D
While smoking affects the lungs, alcohol consumption affects the livers primarily
Question 5 Explanation: 
B The main gist of the argument is that smoking is harmful to society and drinking is not. Well, we need to show that drinking is harmful to and it can cause a lot of damage too. This is best exhibited by option B, which points out that drinking is harmful to others as well.
Question 6
Ethologists, people who study animal behaviour, have traditionally divided an organism's actions into two categories: learned behaviour (based on experience) and instinctive behaviour (based on genotype). Some current scholars reject this distinction, claiming that all behaviour is a predictable interaction of experience and genotype. Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the arguments made in the sentence above?
A
All organisms with identical genotypes and identical experience sometimes respond differently in different situations.
B
All organisms with different genotypes and identical experience always respond identically in identical situations.
C
All organisms with similar genotypes and similar experience always respond differently in identical situations.
D
All organisms with identical genotypes and identical experience always respond identically in identical situations.
E
All organisms with identical genotypes and different experience always respond identically in identical situations.
Question 6 Explanation: 
The first step in this question is that we need to identify what our task is: to strengthen the argument, that is prove that behaviour is indeed a predictable interaction of experience and genotype. How do we achieve that? By simply making all the conditions same under all circumstances and then proving that under these similar conditions, behaviour would be predicatable. This is best illustrated by option B. A statement wise analysis of the question is as follows: Option A does not strengthen the argument because if they react differently in different situations, it does not mean that the behaviour is because of an interaction between different situations, it can depend on the situation also. Option B weakens the argument because this means that the behaviour depends only on experience and not on genotype. Option C also weakens the argument as if they similar genotype and experience they should not behave differently in identical situations. Option 4 STRENGTHENS the argument as it proves that if the experience and genotype is same, the behaviour in similar situations is same. Option 5 cannot strengthen the argument as it means that the behaviour only depends on the genotype.
Question 7
The benefits of psychotherapy result not only from the advice the therapist gives but also from the supportive relationship offered to the patient. Even though this relationship may cost large amounts of money over many years, most patients interpret the therapist's concern for them as genuine and identify this caring relationship as the primary factor in improving their mental health. However, recent studies have found that only eight percent of therapist/patient relationships continue after the patient terminates formal paid visits. Which of the following is in accordance with the ideas contained in the passage? Choose the best option.
A
therapists are equally concerned with moneymaking and their patients' well-being.
B
reading published articles of reputed psychotherapists will hardly be beneficial.
C
therapists can always treat mental illness without the use of prescription drugs.
D
therapists who terminate relationships are likely to improve mental health of their patients.
E
eight percent of patients will continue to improve after termination of therapy.
Question 7 Explanation: 
A Since only 8% of therapist/patient relationships continue after the patient terminates formal paid visits, therefore it means that the majority of doctors who initially keep this relationship and devote their time to it, do so because the patient is paying money. Once the patient stops paying the money, they end the relationship because there is no money involved any more. So, option A fits in perfectly in the context as it places the money relationship in the forefront.
Question 8
Nearly one in three subscribers to Business Today is a millionaire, and over half are in top management. Shouldn't you subscribe to Financial Forecaster now? A reader, who is neither rich nor in top management, will get motivated to buy this magazine if he assumes:
A
Among finance-related periodicals, Business Today provides the most detailed financial information.
B
Top managers cannot do their jobs properly without reading Business Today.
C
The advertisement is placed where those who will be likely to read it are millionaires.
D
The subscribers mentioned were helped to become millionaires or join top management by reading Business Today.
E
Only those who will in fact become millionaires, or at least top managers, will read the advertisement.
Question 8 Explanation: 
D This question basically asks us to identify the correct assumption. An assumption is a co-relation between the facts given and the conclusion arrived upon. The fact given here is that : Nearly one in three subscribers to Business Today is a millionaire, and over half are in top management. The conclusion of the author is that asks the reader to subscribe to the magazine. The question you need to ask is why should you read this magazine? Well, the answer lies in the fact: if by reading this magazine, you have a change of becoming a millionaire or a join the top management, you would surely love to read it. Where do we find this co-relation? In optionD.
Question 9
In Chandigarh, a political candidate who buys saturation radio advertising will get maximum name recognition. The statement above logically conveys which of the following?
A
Radio advertising is the most important factor in political campaigns in Chandigarh.
B
Maximum name recognition in Chandigarh will help a candidate to win a higher percentage of votes cast in the city.
C
Saturation radio advertising reaches every demographically distinct sector of the voting population of Los Angeles.
D
For maximum name recognition a candidate need not spend on media channels other than radio advertising.
E
A candidate's record of achievement in Chandigarh will do little to affect his or her name recognition there.
Question 9 Explanation: 
D This is a simple co-relation: if one medium is the best way of doing something, then the other mediums are obviously not that good. This leads us to option D. If radio is the best way for getting name recognition, then other media channels are obviously not that effective.
Question 10
The rate of violent crime in this state is up 20 percent from last year. The sole and whole blame for this rests with our judiciary and its inability to mete out strict punishments. Recently, the lenient judgments given by our courts have taken out all the fear from the hearts of the criminals in the city. The argument above would be weakened if it were true that
A
80 percent of the other states in the nation have lower crime rates than does this state.
B
white collar crime in this state has also increased by over 20 percent in the last year.
C
20 percent of the police in this state have been laid off in the last year due to budget cuts.
D
polls show that 80 percent of the population in this state oppose capital punishment.
E
the state has hired 20 new judges in the last year to compensate for deaths and retirements.
Question 10 Explanation: 
C How can we weaken this argument? By employing one simple logic: if we can provide another explanation for the increase in crime in the city, our job is done. This is done perfectly by option C, as it tells us how the crime rate in the city has gone up because of lack of policemen. This absolves the judiciary.
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