• These tests are a check for your learning and are meant to serve as tools for assessment.
  • The test is designed to check your current understanding of the language and whether you are able to logically infer the relationships between different parts of the paragraph.
  • Directions for individual questions: The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages. For some questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer; that is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the question.

Critical Reasoning: Test-4

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Question 1
The company’s coffee crop for 1998-99 totaled 8,079 tonnes, an all time record. The increase over the previous year’s production of 5,830 tonnes was 38.58 per cent. The previous highest crop was 6,089 tons in 1970-71. The company thanks to the emphasis laid on the key areas of irrigation, replacement of unproductive coffee bushes and intensive refilling, has improved agricultural practices. It is now our endeavor to reach the target of 10,000 tonnes in 2001-02. Which one of the following would contribute most to making the target of 10,000 tonnes in 2001-02 unrealistic?
A
The potential of the productivity enhancing measures implanted up to now has been exhausted.
B
The total company land under coffee has remained constant since 1969 when an estate in the Nilgiri Hills was acquired.
C
The sensitivity of the crop to climatic factors makes predictions about production uncertain.
D
The target-setting procedures in the company had been proved to be sound by the achievement of the 8,000 tonnes target.
Question 1 Explanation: 
According to the passage, the average production has remained well below 6,000 tonnes in the previous year. The significant increase of over 2,000 tonnes in 1998-99 was achieved by using all productivity enhancing measures. Hence, the target of 10,000 tonnes is unrealistic as explained in option A. option B and C indirectly contribute to the making of the target of 10,000 tonnes. While option D on the other hand, supports the target as realistic by placing faith in the soundness of the target. Option A is the right choice.
Question 2
Animals in general are shrewd in proportion as they cultivate society. Elephants and beavers show the greatest signs of this sagacity when they are together in large numbers, but when man invades their communities they lose all their spirit of industry. Among insects, the labours of the bee and the ant have attracted the attention and admiration of naturalists, but all their sagacity seems to be lost upon separation, and a single bee or ant seems destitute of every degree of industry. It becomes the most stupid insect imaginable and it languishes and soon dies. Which of the following can be inferred from the above passage?
A
Human kind is responsible for the destruction of the natural habitat of animals and insects.
B
Animals in general are unable to function effectively outside their normal social environment.
C
Naturalists have great admiration for bees and ants despite their lack of industry upon separation
D
Elephants and beavers are smarter than bees and ants in the presence of human beings.
Question 2 Explanation: 
Options A and D can be ignored straightaway as they present ideas incoherent from the passage. Option C can be inferred but misses out on other vital facts from the passage. The first sentence of the passage asserts that intelligence of animals is proportionate to the extent of their socializing. And this is exactly what has been given in option B. Hence, Only option B is precise enough to be the correct answer.
Question 3
In a recent report, the gross enrolment ratios at the primary level, that is the number of children enrolled in classes one to five as a proportion of all children aged six to ten were shown to be very high for most states in many cases, they were way above 100 percent. These figures are not worth anything since they are based on the official enrolment data compiled from school records. They might as well stand for gross exaggeration ratios. Which one of the following options best supports the claim that the ratios are exaggerated?
A
The definition of gross enrollment ratio does not exclude, in its numerator, children below six years or above then years enrolled in classes one to five.
B
A school attendance study found that many children enrolled in the school records were not meeting a minimum attendance requirement of 80 percent.
C
A study estimated that close to 22 percent of children enrolled in the class one records were below six years of age and still to start going to school.
D
Demographic surveys show shifts in the population profile which indicates that the number of children in the age group six to ten years is declining.
Question 3 Explanation: 
If the number of students enrolled for a certain class do not fit into that age interval, they are in excess and hence, unrepresentative. Option A is wrong because the definition of gross enrollment ratio itself is flawed. Attendance is not the focus of our argument. Hence, option C is the right choice.
Question 4
Szymanski suggests that the problem of racism in football may be present even today. He begins by verifying an earlier hypothesis that clubs’ wage bills explain 90 percent of their performance. Thus if players’ salaries were to be only based on their abilities, clubs that spend more should finish higher. If there is pay discrimination against some group of players-fewer teams bidding for black players---fewer teams bidding for black players thus lowering the salaries for blacks with the same ability as whites-that neat relation may no longer hold. He concludes that certain clubs seem to have achieved much less than what they could have by not recruiting black players. Which one of the following findings would best support Szymanski’s conclusion?
A
Certain clubs took advantages of the situation by hiring above-average shares of black players.
B
Clubs hired white players at relatively high wages and did not show proportionately good performance.
C
During the study period, clubs in town with a history of discrimination against blacks, underperformed relative to their wage bills.
D
Clubs in one region which had higher proportions of black players had significantly lower wage bills than their counterparts in another region which had predominantly white players.
Question 4 Explanation: 
The argument states that the 'clubs that spend more should finish at a higher ranking'. Options A,C and D are logically incoherent and do not strengthen or support the idea presented in the passage. Only option B can support the idea presented in the passage. Hence, option B is the right choice
Question 5
The pressure on Italy’s 257 jails has been increasing rapidly. These jails are old and overcrowded. They are supposed to hold up 43,000 people-9,000 fewer than now. San Vittore in Milan which has 1,800 inmates is designed for 800. The number of foreigners inside jails has also been increasing. The minister in charge of prisons fears that tensions may snap and so has recommended to the government an amnesty policy. Which one of the following, if true, would have most influenced the recommendation of the minister?
A
Opinion polls have indicated that many Italians favour a general pardon.
B
The opposition may be persuaded to help since amnesties must be approved by a two-thirds majority in Parliament.
C
During a recent visit to a large prison, the Pope whose pronouncements are taken seriously appealed for ‘a gesture of clemency’
D
Shortly before the recommendation was made, 58 prisons reported disturbances in a period of two weeks.
Question 5 Explanation: 
Options A and C are completely vague in the given context. Option B might be valid but is hypothetical and cannot be considered. Only option D which is a true event can influence the minister’s recommendation. Only option D connects the recommendation directly to the cause 'rising tensions in prisons' and not to nay marginal political factors. Hence, option D is the right choice.
Question 6
The offer of the government to make iodised salt available at a low price of one rupee per kilogram is welcome especially since the government seems to be so concerned about the ill effects of no-iodised salt. But it is doubtful that the reports outlining three new and simple but experimental methods for reducing the costs of iodization to about five paise per kilogram will actually be implemented. But these reports have remained just those-reports on paper. Which one of the following, if true, most weaken the author’s contention that it is doubtful whether the offer will be actually implemented?
A
The government proposes to save on costs by using the three methods it has already devised for iodization.
B
The chain of fair-price distribution outlets now covers all the districts of the state.
C
Many small-scale and joint-sector units have completed trails to use the three iodization methods for regular production.
D
The government which initiated the earlier effort is in place even today and has more information on the effects of non-iodized salt.
Question 6 Explanation: 
Options A and D cover the government's honorable intentions, which look best on paper. Option B discusses one feasibility factor. Option C is the best choice as it shows how the project has reached the implementation stage from the pilot stage.
Question 7
About 96 percent of Scandinavian moths have ears tuned to the ultrasonic pulses that bats, their predators, emit. But the remaining 4 per cent do not have ears and are deaf. However, they have a larger wingspan than the hearing moths, and also have higher wing-loadings-the ratio between a wing’s area and its weight-meaning higher manoeuvrability. Which one of the following can be best inferred from the above passage?  
A
A higher proportion of deaf moths than hearing moths fall prey to bats.
B
Deaf moths may try to avoid bats by frequent changes in their flight direction.
C
Deaf moths are faster than hearing moths and so are less prone to becoming a bat’s dinner than hearing moths.
D
The large wingspan enables deaf moths to better receive and sense the pulses of their bat predators.
Question 7 Explanation: 
‘Manoeuvrability’ is linked to ‘flight direction changes’ in D. C just vaguely mentions ‘faster’. A makes no inference, as such. It may or may not be true. There is insufficient evidence to infer D, it sounds rather farfetched.
Question 8
Argentina’s beef cattle herd has dropped to under 50 million from 57 million ten years ago in 1970. The animals are worthless too : prices fell by over a third last year, before recovering slightly. Most local meat packers and processors are in financial trouble and recent years have been a string of plant closures. The Beef Producers Association has now come up with a massive advertisement campaign calling upon Argentines to eat more beef-their juicy, healthy, rotund, plate-filling steaks. Which one of the following, if true, would contribute most to a failure of the campaign?  
A
There has been a change in consumer preference towards eating leaner meats like chicken and fish.
B
Prices of imported beef have been increasing thus making locally grown beef more competitive in terms of pricing.
C
The inability to cross-breed native cattle with improved varieties has not increased production to adequate levels.
D
Animal rights pressure groups have come up rapidly demanding better and humane treatment of farmyard animals like beef cattle.
Question 8 Explanation: 
B does not attack the argument, it helps the Association’s cause. C is pointless, if there isn’t adequate consumption. D has little to do with the core issue in the argument. But A if true, would render the cumulative efforts of the Association fruitless. Hence, option A is the right choice.
Question 9
The problem of traffic congestion in Athens has been testing the ingenuity of politicians and town planners for years. But the measures adapted to date have not succeeded in decreasing the number of cars on the road in the city centre. In 1980, odds and evens number-plate legislation was introduced under which odd and even plates were banned in the city centre on alternate days thereby expecting to halve the number of cars in the city centre. Then in 1993 it was decreed that all cars in use in the city centre must be fitted with catalytic converters, the only condition being that the buyer of such a ‘clean’ car offered for destruction, a car at least 15-years old. Which one of the following options if true would best support the claim that the measures adopted to date have not succeeded?  
A
In the 1980s, many families purchased second cars with the requisite odd or even number plate
B
In the mid-1990s, many families found it feasible to become first-time car owners by buying a car more than 15 years old and turning it in for a new car with catalytic converters.
C
Post-1993, many families found it feasible to become first-time car owners by buying a car more than 15-years old and buy ‘clean’ cars from the open market, even if it meant forgoing the import tax subsidy.
D
All of the above
Question 9 Explanation: 
A would only result in more cars per family. B and C defeat Athens’ purpose as citizens devise ingenious methods to maintain status quo both in terms of number of cars and congestion. Hence, option A is the right choice.
Question 10
The argument for liberalization which answers the worries of the Left parties about the possible trade deficits created by the opening up of the Indian economy goes thus: many trading countries, the trade between two specific countries need to be balanced. The differing demands of goods and services and the differing productive capabilities of the same among different countries will cause a country like India to have trade deficits with some countries and surpluses with other countries. On the whole, the trade deficits and surpluses will balance out in order to give a trade balance’. Which of the following conclusions best summaries the argument presented in the passage above?
A
India’s trade deficits and surpluses with other countries always balance out.
B
Left parties need not worry about trade deficits in India since its trade will always be in balance even though it runs a deficit with a single country.
C
The Left parties in India should not be concerned about India’s trade deficits with specific countries because they will balance out in the long run.
D
None of these
Question 10 Explanation: 
We can solve this by the method of elimination. Let’s take sentence A,it does not mention the worry of the left parties anywhere thus does not precisely summarise the passage. Similarly the second sentence mentions ‘with a single country’ which is not mentioned anywhere in the passage. Sentence C points towards he concern of the left parties and also India’s trade deficits with other countries thus is the correct option.
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